Oxitec’s Core Science & Technology


Our technology provides an environmentally-responsible method of controlling
insect pests that
spread disease or damage crops.

Our insects contain a ‘self-limiting’ gene, and when this gene is passed on to their offspring, the offspring do not survive to adulthood, resulting in a reduction in the pest insect population.

We call this method “self-limiting” because the released insects and their offspring are designed to die and disappear from the environment.

We release males, because it is the female insects that are directly responsible for spreading disease or producing larvae that damage crops. Our males have one job: to find wild females where they live and mate with them.

This method can be applied to all kinds of insect pests, from the mosquitoes that transmit such diseases as dengue and Zika, to moth larvae that destroy cabbage patches.We’ve created our insects using precise genetic engineering tools. They are just like wild insects, except we’ve inserted two additional genes.

The self-limiting gene prevents the insects’ offspring from surviving to adulthood, and a fluorescent marker gene that produces a protein throughout the body of the insects, which glows when you shine a special light on it.

Our technology has several key benefits over other methods:

  • Species-specific: Our insects only reproduce with their own species. They will not result in the death of other, beneficial insects – unlike some other methods of control.
  • Targeted: Our technology harnesses the natural mating instincts of the males, seeking out the wild pest insects where they live and breed in a way that conventional tools are unable to do.
  • Environmentally-responsible: Our technology does not use any chemicals that are harmful to the environment.
  • Non-persistent: The self-limiting system means that our insects cannot establish in the ecosystem.
  • Non-toxic: The proteins of our introduced genes do not produce any toxins or allergens.
  • Scalable: Our innovative production technologies allow us to efficiently mass rear our insects at a large scale.
  • Flexible: Our self-limiting insects can be used as part of integrated pest management programs.



The Self-Limiting Gene

The self-limiting gene is at the heart of our method of insect control. When our male insects are released and reproduce with wild females, all of their offspring inherit a copy of this gene. The self-limiting gene disrupts the proper functioning of the insects’ cells by over-producing a protein in them, interfering with the cells’ ability to produce other essential proteins needed for development. So by disrupting the insect’s normal development, the gene prevents it from surviving to adulthood.

Since the self-limiting gene works by using the insect’s own biology against itself, our control method provides a solution that only affects that particular species of pest without introducing harmful toxins.

We have also designed our insects so that we can turn off the self-limiting gene with an antidote called tetracycline. This allows us to breed our insects at a large scale without the need for any additional genetic engineering. Our 2nd Generation Friendly™ Mosquitoes, for example, were engineered in 2013, and we have been breeding the strain from those original mosquitoes ever since!

The Fluorescent Marker

We have also introduced a marker gene into our insects, which produces a fluorescent protein called DsRed2. Like the self-limiting gene, it is inherited by all offspring. This protein is found throughout the body of the larvae, pupae and adults, and glows red under a special light. As a result, with the right equipment you can easily tell our insects apart from wild ones. DsRed2 is non-toxic and non-allergenic.

The marker gene is vital for a control program, as it allows us to easily identify the offspring of our insects and enables us to track-and-trace them in the wild. By examining larvae from the field, we can see how many are offspring of our self-limiting insects and how many are wild ones. This makes it a valuable tool for quality control in production and for effective monitoring in the field. We then use that data to tailor our releases and ensure we achieve optimal pest suppression.

1. Self-limiting gene produces tTAV protein

The self-limiting gene creates a protein called a tetracycline-controlled transactivator (tTAV protein). One section of the self-limiting gene contains a binding site called tetO.

2. tTAV protein binds to tetO, producing positive feedback

The tTAV protein binds to the tetO site on the self-limiting gene. This works as a positive feedback loop, telling the gene to create more tTAV. As increasing amounts of the tTAV protein is produced, there is more positive feedback, and so even more protein is created.

3. High levels of tTAV prevent cells from working properly

Once there is enough tTAV protein, it interferes with the machinery that cells use to control the expression of genes. Essential genes are not expressed, and the insects die while they are still pupae or larvae.

For our 2nd Generation products, the self-limiting gene has been tweaked so that it only produces the tTAV protein in female insects. As a result, only female insects will die, because they have high levels of the tTAV protein in their cells. Male insects carry the self-limiting gene but cannot use it to produce the tTAV protein, and so they are able to survive.

4. The self-limiting gene can be turned off with an antidote

When the insects are reared with an antidote called tetracycline, the tTAV protein binds to the antidote instead of tetO. There is no positive feedback loop so levels of tTAV remain low and the female insect survives.

In the factory we can breed our self-limiting insects by adding tetracycline to their food. However, in the wild their female offspring do not have access to tetracycline and so they die. Male offspring survive and can continue to pass on the self-limiting gene to half of their offspring.

Select List of Oxitec Peer-reviewed Publications
(Organized by year for easy reference)

Thomas, D.D., Donnelly, C.A., Wood, R.J. and Alphey, L.S.  (2000) Insect population control using a dominant, repressible, lethal genetic system.  Science, 287: 2474-2476. PAYWALL:http://www.sciencemag.org/content/287/5462/2474.abstract

Alphey, L.(2000) Is RIDL the Answer?  ISB News Report May 2000: 8-10. OPEN ACCESS: http://www.isb.vt.edu/articles/may0006.htm

Bateson, P., Alphey, L.,Bulfield, G., Fisher, E., Goodfellow, P., Keverne, B., McConnell, I., Owen, M., Raff, M., Smith, J., Cooper, R., Craig, J. and Teather, S.  (2001). The use of GM animals.  The Royal Society. OPEN ACCESS: https://royalsociety.org/~/media/Royal_Society_Content/policy/publications/2001/10026.pdf

Alphey, L. and Andreasen, M.(2002).Dominant lethality and insect population control. Mol. Biochem. Parasitology, 121: 173-178. PAYWALL:http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0166685102000403

Alphey, L. (2002). Re-engineering the Sterile Insect Technique. Insect Biochem. Mol. Biol., 32: 1243-1247. PAYWALL:http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0965174802000875

Alphey, L., Beard, B., Billingsley, P., Coetzee, M., Crisanti, A., Curtis, C., Eggleston, P., Godfray, C., Hemingway, J., Jacobs-Lorena, M., James, AA., Kafatos, FC., Mukwaya, LG., Paton, M., Powell, JR., Schneider, W., Scott., TW., Sine, B., Sinden, R., Sinkins. S., Spielman, A., Touré, Y. and Collins, FH. (2002) Malaria control with genetically modified vectors.  Science 298: 119-121. PAYWALL:https://www.sciencemag.org/content/298/5591/119

Nimmo, D., Alphey, L.and Eggleston, P. (2003) Development of targeted Cre-lox integration systems in insects. Proceedings: Fourth International Workshop on Transgenesis and Genomics of Invertebrate Organisms. p103.
Coleman, P.G. and Alphey, L.(2004) Genetic control of vector populations: an imminent prospect.  Trop. Med. Int. Health, 9: 433-437. OPEN ACCESS: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1365-3156.2004.01225.x/epdf
Gong, P., Epton, M.J., Fu, G., Scaife, S., Condon, K.C., Condon, G.C., Morrison, N.I., Dafa’alla, T., Coleman, P.G. and Alphey, L.  (2005). A dominant lethal genetic system for autocidal control of the Mediterranean Fruit Fly.  Nature Biotech., 23: 453-456. PAYWALL:http://www.nature.com/nbt/journal/v23/n4/abs/nbt1071.html
Olson, K.E., Alphey, L., Carlson, J. and James, A.A. (2006). Genetic approaches in Aedes aegyptifor control of dengue: an overview.  In “Bridging Laboratory and Field Research for Genetic Control of Disease Vectors”, eds Knols, B.G.J. and Louis, C.  Springer ISBN: 1-4020-3800-3. PAYWALL:http://link.springer.com/book/10.1007%2F1-4020-3799-6

Nimmo, D.D., Alphey, L. Meredith, J.M. and Eggleston, P (2006).  High efficiency site-specific genetic engineering of the mosquito genome. Insect Molecular Biology, 15: 129-136. OPEN ACCESS: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1602059/pdf/nihms-12586.pdf

Marrelli, M.T., Moreira, C.K., Kelly, D., Alphey, L. and Jacobs-Lorena, M. (2006).  Mosquito transgenesis: what is the fitness cost? Trends Parasit. 22: 197-202. OPEN ACCESS: http://www.researchgate.net/publication/7215479_Mosquito_transgenesis_what_is_the_fitness_cost_Trends_Parasitol

Dafa’alla, T.H., Condon, G.C., Condon, K.C., Phillips, C.E., Morrison, N.I., Jin, L., Epton, M.J., Fu, G. and Alphey, L. (2006). Transposon-free insertions for insect genetic engineering.  Nature Biotech, 24: 820-821. OPEN ACCESS: http://www.nature.com/nbt/journal/v24/n7/pdf/nbt1221.pdf

Fu, G., Condon, K.C., Epton, M.J., Gong, P., Jin, L., Condon, G.C., Morrison, N.I., Dafa’alla, T.H. and Alphey, L. (2007). Female-specific insect lethality engineered using alternative splicing. Nature Biotechnology, 25: 353-357. OPEN ACCESS: http://www.nature.com/nbt/journal/v25/n3/pdf/nbt1283.pdf

Simmons, G.S., Alphey, L., Vasquez, T., Morrison, N.I., Epton, M.J., Miller, E., Miller, T.A., Staten, R., (2007). Potential Use of a Conditional Lethal Transgenic Pink Bollworm Pectinophora gossypiella in Area-Wide Eradication or Suppression Programmes. In M.J.B. Vreysen, A.S. Robinson and J. Hendrichs (eds.). Area-Wide Control of Insect Pests: From Research to Field Implementation, Springer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands. PAYWALL:http://link.springer.com/book/10.1007/978-1-4020-6059-5

Phuc, H.K., Andreasen, M.H., Burton, R., Vass, C., Epton, M.J., Pape, G., Fu, G., Condon, K.C., Scaife, S., Donnelly, C.A., Coleman, P.G., White-Cooper, H. and Alphey, L. (2007). Late-acting dominant lethal genetic systems and mosquito control.  BMC Biology 5: 11. OPEN ACCESS: http://www.biomedcentral.com/content/pdf/1741-7007-5-11.pdf

Atkinson, M.P., Su, Z., Alphey, N., Alphey, L.S., Coleman, P.G. and Wein, L.M. (2007). Analyzing the control of mosquito-borne diseases by a dominant lethal genetic system. Proc. Nat’l Acad. Sci. (USA). 104: 9540-9545.  OPEN ACCESS: http://www.pnas.org/content/104/22/9540.full.pdf

Alphey, L. (and others).  (2007). World Health Organisation Scientific Working Group Report on Dengue.  168pp. OPEN ACCESS: http://r4d.dfid.gov.uk/PDF/Outputs/Misc_CommDis/swg_dengue_2.pdf

Alphey, N., Coleman, P.G., Donnelly, C.A. and Alphey, L. (2007).  Managing insecticide resistance by mass release of engineered insects.  Journal of Economic Entomology, 100: 1642-1649. PAYWALL: http://jee.oxfordjournals.org/content/100/5/1642

Condon, K.C., Condon, G.C., Dafa’alla, T.H., Forrester, O.T., Phillips, C.E., Scaife, S. and Alphey, L. (2007). Germ-line transformation of the Mexican Fruit Fly.  Insect Molecular Biology, 16: 573-580. PAYWALL: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1365-2583.2007.00752.x/abstract

Alphey, L. (2007). Genetic improvements to the sterile insect technique.  Entomological Research 37 (Suppl. 1) A53 PAYWALL: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1748-5967.2007.00080.x/abstract

Condon, K.C., Condon, G.C., Dafa’alla, T.H., Fu, G., Phillips, C.E., Jin, L., Gong, P. and Alphey, L. (2007).  Genetic sexing through the use of Y-linked transgenes. Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 37: 1168-1176. PAYWALL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0965174807001701

[Working Group of 29 incl. Alphey, L.] (2007) Guidance for Contained Field Trials of Vector Mosquitoes Engineered to Contain a Gene Drive System: Recommendations of a Scientific Working Group. Vector-borne and Zoonotic Diseases, 8: 127-166 OPEN ACCESS: ‪http://bch.cbd.int/database/attachment/?id=10385‪.

Alphey, L., Nimmo, D., O’Connell, S., and Alphey, N. (2008).  Insect population suppression using engineered insects.  In Aksoy, S (ed.) Transgenesis and the management of vector-borne disease, Landes Bioscience, Austin, Texas, USA. aka Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 2008 627:93-103. PAYWALL:http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007%2F978-0-387-78225-6_8

Yakob, L., Alphey, L., Bonsall, M.B. (2008) Aedes aegypticontrol: the concomitant roles of competition, space and transgenic technologies.  J. Applied Ecol., 45: 1258-1265 OPEN ACCESS: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1365-2664.2008.01498.x/epdf

Alphey, L., Baker, P, Burton, RS., Condon, GC., Condon, KC., Dafa’alla, TH., Epton, M.J.,  Fu, G., Gong, P., Jin, L., Labbé, G., Morrison, N.I., Nimmo, D.D., O’Connell, S., Phillips, C.E., Plackett, A., Scaife, S. and Woods, A. (2008) Genetic technologies to enhance the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT). Proceedings 7thInternational Symposium on Fruit Flies of Economic Importance10-15 September 2006, Salvador, Brazil p319-326 OPEN ACCESS: http://www.moscamed.org.br/pdf/Cap_37.pdf

Alphey, N., Coleman, P.G., Donnelly, C.A and Alphey, L. (2008) Using mass-release of engineered insects to manage insecticide resistance. Proceedings 7thInternational Symposium on Fruit Flies of Economic Importance10-15 September 2006, Salvador, Brazil p295-298 OPEN ACCESS: http://www.moscamed.org.br/pdf/Cap_33.pdf

Alphey, N., Bonsall, M.B., Alphey, L. (2009) Combining pest control and resistance management: synergy of engineered insects with Btcrops. Journal of Economic Entomology, 102: 717-732x PAYWALL:http://jee.oxfordjournals.org/content/102/2/717

Alphey, L. (2009) Natural and engineered mosquito immunity. Journal of Biology 8: 40 OPEN ACCESS: http://jbiol.com/content/8/4/40

Morrison, N.I., Segura, D.F., Stainton, K.C., Fu, G., Donnelly, C.A. and Alphey, L.S. (2009) Sexual competitiveness of a transgenic sexing strain of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata.  Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 133: 146-153 PAYWALL: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1570-7458.2009.00909.x/abstract

Alphey, L., Bourtzis, K. and Miller, T. (2009) Genetically modified insects as a tool for biorational control.  In I. Ishaaya and A.R. Horowitz (eds.) Biorational Control of Arthropod Pests: Application and Resistance Management.  Springer, NewYork.   ISBN 978-90-481-2315-5(H) PAYWALL: http://www.springer.com/us/book/9789048123155

Papathanos, P.A., Bossin, H.C., Benedict, M.Q., Catteruccia, F., Malcolm, C.A., Alphey, L. and Crisanti, A. (2009) Sex separation strategies: past experience and new approaches.  Malaria Journal 8 (Suppl 2): S5 PAYWALL: http://www.malariajournal.com/content/pdf/1475-2875-8-S2-S5.pdf

Beech, CJ., Vasan, SS., Quinlan, MM., Capurro, ML., Alphey, L., Bayard, V., Bouaré, M., Kittayapong, P., Lavery, J.V. Lim, LH., Marrelli, MT., McLeod, MC., Nagaraju, J., Ombongi, K., Othman, RY., Pillai, V., Ramsey, JM., Reuben, R., Rose, RI., Tyagi, B.K. and Mumford, J. (2009) Deployment of innovative genetic vector control strategies: Progress on regulatory and biosafety aspects, capacity building and development of best-practice guidance.  Asia Pacific Journal of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology 17 (3) 73-83 OPEN ACCESS: http://www.msmbb.org.my/apjmbb/html193/193d.pdf

Mumford, J., Quinlan, MM., Beech, CJ., Alphey, L., Bayard, V., Capurro, ML., Kittayapong, P., Knight, JD., Marrelli, MT., Ombongi, K., Ramsey, JM. and Reuben, R. (2009) MosqGuide: A project to develop best practice guidance for the deployment of innovative genetic vector control strategies for malaria and dengue. Asia Pacific Journal of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology 17 (3) 91-93 OPEN ACCESS: http://www.researchgate.net/publication/238782718_MosqGuide_A_project_to_develop_best_practice_guidance_for_the_deployment_of_innovative_genetic_vector_control_strategies_for_malaria_and_dengue

Wilke, ABB., Nimmo, DD., St John, O., Kojin BB., Capurro, ML., Alphey, L. and Marrelli, MT. (2009) Genetic enhancements to the sterile insect technique to control mosquito populations.  Asia Pacific Journal of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology Vol. 17 (3), 65-74. OPEN ACCESS: http://www.msmbb.org.my/apjmbb/html173/173b.pdf

Alphey, L., Benedict, M.Q., Bellini, R., Clark, G.G., Dame, D.A., Service, M.W. and Dobson, S.L. (2010) Sterile-insect methods for control of mosquito-borne diseases – an analysis. Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, 10(3):295-311. OPEN ACCESS: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2946175/pdf/vbz.2009.0014.pdf

Fu, G., Lees, R.S., Nimmo, D., Aw, D., Jin, L., Gray, P., Berendonk, T.U., White-Cooper, H., Scaife, S., Phuc, H.K., Marinotti, O., Jasinskiene, N., James, A.A. and Alphey, L.  (2010) A female-specific flightless phenotype for mosquito control.  Proc. Nat’l Acad. Sci. (USA) 107 (10):4550-4554 OPEN ACCESS: http://www.pnas.org/content/107/10/4550.full

Vontas, J., Ranson, H and Alphey, L.  (2010) Transcriptomics and disease vector control.  BMC Biology 8:52 OPEN ACCESS: http://www.biomedcentral.com/content/pdf/1741-7007-8-52.pdf

Labbé, G.M.C., Nimmo, D.D. and Alphey, L.  (2010)piggyBacand PhiC31-mediated genetic transformation of the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus(Skuse).  PLoS Negl Trop Dis, 4:e788 OPEN ACCESS: http://www.plosntds.org/article/fetchObject.action?uri=info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pntd.0000788&representation=PDF

Kongmee, M., Nimmo, D., Labbé, G., Beech, C., Grieco, J., Alphey, L. and Achee, N.  (2010) Irritant and repellent behavioral responses of Aedes aegyptimale populations developed for RIDL®disease control strategies.  J. Med. Entomol. 47(6): 1092-1098 PAYWALL:http://www.bioone.org/doi/abs/10.1603/ME10046?journalCode=ment

Dafa’alla, T., Fu. G., Alphey, L. (2010) Use of a regulatory mechanism of sex determination in pest insect control.  J. Genetics, 89(3): 301-305 PAYWALL:http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs12041-010-0041-y

Bonsall, M.B., Yakob, L., Alphey, N. and Alphey, L. (2010) Transgenic control of vectors: the effects of interspecific interactions. Israel Journal of Ecology and Evolution 56: 353-370 PAYWALL:http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1560/IJEE.56.34.353?journalCode=tiee20

McKemey AR, Alphey L, Koukidou M, Kramer A. (2010) Genetic improvements to SIT for fruit fly control. IOBC-WPRS Bulletin Vol. 53 p. 11-6. PAYWALL:http://www.iobc-wprs.org/members/shop_en.cfm?mod_Shop_detail_produkte=58

Ant, T. H., Koukidou, M. and Alphey, L. (2010) Genetic engineering of the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae, for use in the sterile insect technique (SIT). IOBC-WPRS Bulletin, Vol. 59. PAYWALL: http://www.iobcwprs.org/members/shop_en.cfm?mod_Shop_detail_produkte=52

Alphey, N., Bonsall, M.B. and Alphey, L. (2011) Modeling resistance to genetic control of insects.  J. Theor. Biol. 270(1): 42-55 PAYWALL:http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022519310006016

Morrison, N.I., Franz, G., Koukidou, M., Miller, T.A., Saccone, G., Alphey, L.S., Beech, C.J., Nagaraju, J., Simmons, G.S., and Polito, L.C. (2011). Genetic improvements to the Sterile Insect Technique for agricultural pests. Asian-Pacific Journal of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology 18:275-295 OPEN ACCESS: http://www.msmbb.org.my/apjmbb/html182/182c.pdf

Wise de Valdez, M.R., Nimmo, D., Betz, J., Gong, H., James, A.A., Alphey, L.*, and Black, W.C., IV (2011). Genetic elimination of dengue vector mosquitoes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA) 108:4772-4775 OPEN ACCESS: http://www.pnas.org/content/108/12/4772.full

Bargielowski, I., Nimmo, D., Alphey, L., and Koella, J.C. (2011). Comparison of Life History Characteristics of the Genetically Modified OX513A Line and a Wild Type Strain of Aedes aegypti. PLoS ONE6, e20699 OPEN ACCESS: http://www.plosone.org/article/fetchObject.action?uri=info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0020699&representation=PDF

Simmons, G.S., McKemey, A.R., Morrison, N.I., O’Connell, S., Tabashnik, B.E., Claus, J., Fu, G., Tang, G., Sledge, M., Walker, A.S., Phillips, C.E., Donnelly, C.A. and Alphey, L.  (2011). Field performance of a genetically engineered strain of pink bollworm.  PLoS ONE6, e24110 OPEN ACCESS: http://www.plosone.org/article/fetchObject.action?uri=info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0024110&representation=PDF

Black, W.C. IV, Alphey, L. and A. A. James.  (2011). Why RIDL is not SIT.  Trends in Parasitology 27(8): 362-370 PAYWALL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/14714922/27/8

Alphey, N., Alphey, L. and Bonsall, M. B. (2011).  A Model Framework to Estimate Impact and Cost of Genetics-Based Sterile Insect Methods for Dengue Vector Control.  PLoS ONE6:e25384. OPEN ACCESS: http://www.plosone.org/article/fetchObject.action?uri=info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0025384&representation=PDF

Beech, C.J., Quinlan, M.M., Capurro, M.L., Alphey, L.S. and Mumford, J.D. (2011). Update: Deployment of Innovative Genetic Vector Control Strategies including an update on the MosqGuide Project. Asian Pacific Journal of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology19: 101-106 OPEN ACCESS: http://www.mosqguide.org.uk/Documents_update/Beech%20et%20al%202011_APJMBB%20article_Update%20on%20deployment%20of%20innovative%20vector%20control%20strategies.pdf

Bargielowski, I., Alphey, L., and Koella, J.C. (2011). Cost of Mating and Insemination Capacity of a Genetically Modified Mosquito Aedes aegyptiOX513A Compared to its Wild Type Counterpart. PLoS ONE, 6, e26086 OPEN ACCESS: http://www.plosone.org/article/fetchObject.action?uri=info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0026086&representation=PDF

Harris, A.F., Nimmo, D., McKemey, A.R., Kelly, N., Scaife, S., Beech, C., Donnelly, C.A., Petrie, W., and Alphey, L. (2011). Field performance of engineered male mosquitoes. Nature Biotech., 29:1034-1037 PAYWALL: http://www.nature.com/nbt/journal/v29/n11/full/nbt.2019.html

Morrison, N.I., Walker, A. S., Baxter, I., Harvey-Samuel, T., Hdidi, A. and Alphey, L. (2011). Development of genetic control in the tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta.IOBC-WPRS Bulletin Vol. 68 (2011) PAYWALL: https://www.iobc-wprs.org/members/shop_en.cfm?mod_Shop_detail_produkte=43#toggle29

Alphey, L. and Beech, C. (2012). Appropriate regulation of GM insects.  PLoS Negl Trop Dis 6, e1496 OPEN ACCESS: http://www.plosntds.org/article/fetchObject.action?uri=info:doi/10.1371/journal.pntd.0001496&representation=PDF

Fu, G., Miles, A. and Alphey, L. (2012). Multiplex detection and SNP genotyping in a single fluorescence channel. PLoS One 7:e30340 OPEN ACCESS: http://www.plosone.org/article/fetchObject.action?uri=info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0030340&representation=PDF

Wilder-Smith, A.,Renhorn, K.-E., Tissera, H., Abu Bakar, S., Alphey, L, Kittayapong, P., Lindsay, S., Logan, J., Hatz, C., Reiter, P., Rocklöv, J., Byass, P., Louis, V.R., Tozan, Y., Massad, E., Tenorio, A., Lagneau, L., L’Ambert, G., Brooks, D., Wegerdt, J. and Gubler, D. (2012). DengueTools: Innovative tools and strategies for the surveillance and control of dengue, Global Health Action, 5:17273 OPEN ACCESS: http://www.globalhealthaction.net/index.php/gha/article/view/17273/pdf_1

Morrison, N. I. & Alphey, L. (2012). Genetically modified insects for pest control: an update. Outlooks Pest Management, 23:65-68 PAYWALL: http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/resinf/opm/2012/00000023/00000002/art00006?crawler=true

Ant, T., Koukidou, M., Rempoulakis, P., Gong, H.-F., Economopoulos, A., Vontas, J.and Alphey, L.(2012). Control of the olive fruit fly using genetics-enhanced SIT. BMC Biology, 10:51 OPEN ACCESS: http://www.biomedcentral.com/content/pdf/1741-7007-10-51.pdf

Beech, C.J., Koukidou, M., Morrison, N.I. and Alphey, L. (2012) Genetically Modified Insects: Science, Use, Status and Regulation.  ICGEB Collection of Biosafety Reviews 6:66-124. OPEN ACCESS: http://biosafety.icgeb.org/sites/default/files/Col6_Beech.pdf

Leftwich, P. T., Edward, D. A., Alphey, L., Gage, M. J. G. and Chapman, T. (2012). Variation in adult sex ratio alters the association between courtship, mating frequency and paternity in the lek-forming fruitfly Ceratitis capitata. J. Evol. Biol 25:1732-1740doi: 10.1111/j.1420-9101.2012.02556.x OPEN ACCESS: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1420-9101.2012.02556.x/epdf

Labbé, G. M. C., Scaife, S., Morgan, S., Curtis, Z. & Alphey, L. (2012). Female-specific flightless (fsRIDL) strains of Ae. albopictusfor mosquito control. PLoS Negl Trop Dis, 6: e1724 OPEN ACCESS: http://www.plosntds.org/article/fetchObject.action?uri=info:doi/10.1371/journal.pntd.0001724&representation=PDF

Martins, S., Naish, N., Walker, A.S., Morrison, N.I., S. Scaife, S., Fu, G., Dafa’alla, T. and Alphey, L.(2012) Germline transformation of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostellaL., using the piggyBac transposable element. Insect Molecular Biology 21: 414-421doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2583.2012.01146.x OPEN ACCESS: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1365-2583.2012.01146.x/pdf

Harris, A.F., McKemey, A.R., Nimmo, D., Curtis, Z., Black, I., Morgan, S.A., Neira Oviedo, M., Lacroix, R., Naish, N., Morrison, N., Collado, A., Stevenson, J., Scaife, S., Dafa’alla, T., Fu, G., Phillips, C., Miles, A., Raduan, N., Kelly, N., Beech, C., Donnelly, C.A., Petrie, W.D., and Alphey, L. (2012) Successful suppression of a field mosquito population by release of engineered male mosquitoes. Nature Biotech. 30:828-830 PAYWALL: http://www.nature.com/nbt/journal/v30/n9/full/nbt.2350.html

Bargielowski, I., Kaufmann, C., Alphey, L., Reiter, P. & Koella, J. (2012) Flight performance and teneral energy reserves of two genetically modified and one wild type strain of the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti(Diptera: Culicidae). Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis,12: 1053-1058 doi:10.1089/vbz.2012.0994 OPEN ACCESS: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3525892/pdf/vbz.2012.0994.pdf

Lacroix R., McKemey, A.R., Raduan, N., Lim, K.W., Wong, H.M., Teoh, G.N., Siti R.A.A., Salman, S., Subramaniam, S., Oreenaiza. N., Norhaida H.A.T., Angamuthu, C., Suria, M.M., Lees, R.S., Naish, N., Scaife, S., Gray, P., Labbé, G., Beech, C., Nimmo, D., Alphey, L., Vasan, S.S. , Lee H.L., Nazni, W.A., Shahnaz, M.(2012). Open Field Release of Genetically Engineered Sterile Male Aedes aegypti in Malaysia. PLoS One, 7(8): e42771 OPEN ACCESS: http://www.plosone.org/article/fetchObject.action?uri=info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0042771&representation=PDF

Alphey, L., Koukidou, M., Ant, T.H., Leftwich, P., Rempoulakis, C., Vontas, J., Economopoulos, A., and Chapman, T. (2012). Genetic improvements to sterile-male control of tephritid fruit flies. TEAM Newsletter 11, 3-8 NOT ONLINE

Alphey, L. and Beech, C. (2012). Genetically Engineered Insects – Regulatory Progress and Challenges.  In “Regulation of Agricultural Biotechnology: The United States and Canada”, eds: Wozniak, C.A. & McHughen, A. Springer PAYWALL: http://www.springer.com/gb/book/9789400721555

Morrison, N.I., Simmons, G.S., Fu, G., O’Connell, S., Walker, A.S., Dafa’alla, T., Walters, M., Claus, J., Tang, G., Li, J., Marubbi, T., Epton, M.J., Staten, R.T., Miller, E, Miller, T.A. and Alphey, L. (2012). Engineered repressible lethality for control of the pink bollworm, a lepidopteran pest of cotton. PLoS One, e50922 OPEN ACCESS: http://www.plosone.org/article/fetchObject.action?uri=info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0050922&representation=PDF

Walters, M., Morrison, N.I., John Claus, J., Tang, G., Phillips, C.E., Young, R., Zink, R.T. and Alphey, L. (2012). Field longevity of a fluorescent protein marker in an engineered strain of the pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders).  PLoS One 7, e38547 OPEN ACCESS: http://www.plosone.org/article/fetchObject.action?uri=info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0038547&representation=PDF

Massonnet-Bruneel, B., Corre-Catelin, N., Lacroix, R., Lees, R.S., Phuc, HK, Nimmo, D., Alphey, L. and Reiter, P. (2012). Fitness of transgenic mosquito Aedes aegyptimales carrying a dominant lethal genetic system.  PLoS One, 8:e62711 OPEN ACCESS: http://www.plosone.org/article/fetchObject.action?uri=info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0062711&representation=PDF

Lee H.L., Vasan, S., Nazni, W.A., Iswarti, I., Norhaida, H., Selvi, S., Alphey, L. and Shahnaz. M. (2013). Mating compatibility and competitiveness of transgenic and wild type Aedes aegypti(L.) under contained semi-field conditions. Transgenic Research, 22: 47-57 doi: 10.1007/s11248-012-9625-z. PAYWALL: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11248-012-9625-z

Facchinelli, L., Valerio, L., Ramsey, J.M., Gould, F., Katz, R., Bond, G., Robert, M.A., Lloyd, A.L., James, A.A., Alphey, L., and Scott, T.W. (2013). Field cage studies and progressive evaluation of genetically-engineered mosquitoes.  PLoS Negl Trop Dis 7, e2001. OPEN ACCESS: http://www.plosntds.org/article/fetchObject.action?uri=info:doi/10.1371/journal.pntd.0002001&representation=PDF

Kevin Gorman (2013) Editorial – Resistance 2011 Pest Management Science. 69 (2) page 149. DOI: 10.1002/ps.3481 PAYWALL:http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ps.3481/abstract

Harris, C.L., Sanchez-Vargas, I.J., Olson, K.E., Alphey, L., and Fu, G. (2013). Polymerase chain displacement reaction. BioTechniques 54, 93-97. OPEN ACCESS: http://www.biotechniques.com/multimedia/archive/00189/BTN_A_000113951_O_189734a.pdf

Salvemini, M., D’Amato, R.,Petrella, V., Aceto, S., Nimmo, D., Neira, M., Alphey, L., Polito, L.C. and Saccone, G. (2013). The orthologue of the fruitfly sex behaviour gene fruitlessin the mosquito Aedes aegypti: evolution of genomic organisation and alternative splicing. PLoS One 8, e48554. OPEN ACCESS: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3572092/pdf/pone.0048554.pdf

Wilke, A.B.B., Scaife, S., Alphey, L., and Marrelli, M.T. (2013). DsRed2 transient expression in Culex quinquefasciatusmosquitoes. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 108. OPEN ACCESS: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3970632/pdf/0074-0276-mioc-108-04-529.pdf

Oreenaiza, M. N, Wesley, D., Wong, H. M., Teoh, G. N., Khairul, A., Nor Azlina, A. H., Winskill, P., Azahari, A. H., Muhammad, Z. S., Lacroix, R., Scaife, S., McKemey, A. R.,

Beech, C., Alphey, L., Nimmo, D. D., Nazni, W. A.and Lee, H. L. (2012). Oral ingestion of transgenic RIDL Ae. aegyptilarvae has no negative effect on two predator Toxorhynchitesspecies.  PLoS One, 8, e58805. OPEN ACCESS: http://www.plosone.org/article/fetchObject.action?uri=info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0058805&representation=PDF

Jin, L., Walker, A.S., Fu, G., Harvey-Samuel, T., Dafa’alla, T., Miles, A., Marubbi, T., Granville, D., Humphrey-Jones, N., O’Connell, S., Morrison, N.I. and Alphey, L. (2013). Engineered female-specific lethality for control of pest Lepidoptera. ACS Synthetic Biology, 2: 160-166 PAYWALL:http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/sb300123m

Tan, A., Fu, G., Li, J., Guo, Q., Li, Z., Niu, B., Meng, Z., Morrison, N.I., Alphey, L.*, and Huang, Y. (2013). A transgene-based, female-specific lethality system for genetic sexing of the silkworm, Bombyx mori. PNAS 110:6766-6770 OPEN ACCESS: http://www.pnas.org/content/110/17/6766.full.pdf

Alphey, L., McKemey, A., Nimmo, D., Neira Oveido, M., Lacroix, R., Matzen, K., and Beech, C. (2013). Genetic control of Aedesmosquitoes. Pathogens and Global Health107: 170-179 OPEN ACCESS: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4001467/pdf/pgh-107-04-170.pdf

Marinotti, O., Jasinskiene, N., Scaife, S., Fu, G., Brown, D., Chowa, K., Fazekas, A., Mattingly, S., Alphey, L., and James, A.A. (2013). Development of a population suppression strain for a vector of human malaria, Anopheles stephensi. Malaria Journal,12:142 OPEN ACCESS: http://www.malariajournal.com/content/pdf/1475-2875-12-142.pdf

Brown, D.M., Alphey, L.S., McKemey, A., Beech, C., and James, A.A. (2013). Criteria for identifying and evaluating candidate sites for open-field trials of genetically-engineered mosquitoes. Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, 14(4):291-299. OPEN ACCESS: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3993056/pdf/vbz.2013.1364.pdf

Chandru, A., Ummul, H.A., Lacroix, R., Suria, M.M., Vasan, S.S., Shamala, D.S., Lee, H.L., Murad, S., Sit, N.W., Alphey, L., and Nazni, W.A.(2013). Similar susceptibility to dengue and chikungunya for transgenic and non-transformed Aedes aegypti. PLoS Negl Trop Dis,submitted NOT ONLINE

Alphey, L. (2014). Genetic control of mosquitoes. Annual Review of Entomology 59: 205-224. PAYWALL: http://www.annualreviews.org/doi/pdf/10.1146/annurev-ento-011613-162002

Alphey, L., and Alphey, N. (2014). Five things to know about genetically modified (GM) insects for vector control. PLoS Pathogens 10(3):e1003909. OPEN ACCESS: http://www.plospathogens.org/article/fetchObject.action?uri=info:doi/10.1371/journal.ppat.1003909&representation=PDF

Alphey L, Koukidou M, Morrison NI (2014) Conditional dominant Lethals – RIDL. In Benedict, M.Q. (ed.) Transgenic Insects: Techniques and Applications. CABI, Oxfordshire, UK. PAYWALL:http://www.cabi.org/bookshop/book/9781780644516

Beech C. Regulatory experience and challenges for the release of GM insects 2014 J. Verbr. Lebensm. 9:1 SupplementDOI 10.1007/s00003-014-0886-8. PAYWALL: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00003-014-0886-8

Beech C, Miller T (2014) Risk analysis and the regulation of transgenic insects. InBenedict, M.Q. (ed.) Transgenic Insects: Techniques and Applications. CABI, Oxfordshire, UK. PAYWALL: http://www.cabi.org/bookshop/book/9781780644516

Brown DM, Alphey LS, McKemey A, Beech C, James AA. (2014). Criteria for identifying and evaluating candidate sites for open-field trials of genetically engineered mosquitoes.Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 14(4):291-9. doi: 10.1089/vbz.2013.1364. OPEN ACCESS: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3993056/pdf/vbz.2013.1364.pdf

Carvalho DO, Wilke ABB, Nimmo DD, Naish N, McKemey AR, Gray P, Marrelli MT, Virginio JF, Alphey L, Capurro ML (2014) Mass production of genetically modified Aedes aegyptifor field releases in Brazil. JoVE 83:e3579. OPEN ACCESS: http://www.jove.com/pdf/3579/jove-protocol-3579-mass-production-genetically-modified-aedes-aegypti-for-field-releases

Harvey-Samuel, T., Ant, T., Morrison, N.I., Gong, H., Alphey, L. (2014) Population-level effects of fitness costs associated with repressible female-lethal transgene insertions in two pest insects. Evolutionary Applications, 7(5):597–606. OPEN ACCESS: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/eva.12159/epdf

Koukidou M, Alphey L (2014) Practical applications of insects’ sexual development for pest control. Sex Dev. 8(1-3):127-36. doi: 10.1159/000357203. PAYWALL:http://www.karger.com/Article/Abstract/357203

Leftwich PT, Koukidou M, Rempoulakis P, Gong H-F, Zacharopoulou A, Chapman T, Economopoulos A, Vontas J, Alphey L (2014). Genetic elimination of field-cage populations of Mediterranean fruit flies. Proc Roy Soc (London) B, 281: 20141372. OPEN ACCESS: http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/royprsb/281/1792/20141372.full.pdf

Neira M, Lacroix R, Cáceres L, Kaiser PE, Young J, Pineda L, Black I, Sosa N, Nimmo D, Alphey L, McKemey A. (2014). Estimation of Aedes aegypti(Diptera: Culicidae) population size and adult male survival in an urban area in Panama. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 109(7):879-86. OPEN ACCESS: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4296492/pdf/0074-0276-mioc-109-7-0879.pdf

Scott MJ, Morrison NI, Simmons GS. (2014) Transgenic approaches for sterile insect control of dipteran livestock pests and lepidopteran crop pests. InBenedict, M.Q. (ed.) Transgenic Insects: Techniques and Applications. CABI, Oxfordshire, UK. PAYWALL:http://www.cabi.org/bookshop/book/9781780644516

Winskill P, Harris AF, Morgan SA, Stevenson J, Raduan N, Alphey L, McKemey AR, Donnelly CA. (2014). Genetic control of Aedes aegypti: data-driven modelling to assess the effect of releasing different life stages and the potential for long-term suppression. Parasit Vectors. 13(7):68. doi: 10.1186/1756-3305-7-68. OPEN ACCESS: http://www.parasitesandvectors.com/content/pdf/1756-3305-7-68.pdf

Haghighat-Khah RE, Scaife S, Martins S, St John O, Matzen KJ, Morrison N, Alphey L. (2015). Site-Specific Cassette Exchange Systems in the Aedes aegypti Mosquito and the Plutella xylostellaMoth. PLoS One 10(4): e0121097. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0121097. OPEN ACCESS: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4382291/pdf/pone.0121097.pdf

Winskill P, Carvalho DO, Capurro ML, Alphey L, Donnelly CA, McKemey AR (2015) Dispersal of engineered male Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 9(11): e0004156. OPEN ACCESS: http://www.plosntds.org/article/fetchObject.action?uri=info:doi/10.1371/journal.pntd.0004156&representation=PDF

Carvalho DO, McKemey AR, Garziera L, Lacroix R, Donnelly CA, Alphey L, Malavasi A, Capurro ML (2015) Suppression of a field population of Aedes aegyptiin Brazil by sustained release of transgenic male mosquitoes. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 9(7): e0003864. OPEN ACCESS: http://www.plosntds.org/article/fetchObject.action?uri=info:doi/10.1371/journal.pntd.0003864&representation=PDF

Curtis Z, Matzen K, Neira Oviedo M, Nimmo D, Gray P, Winskill P, Locatelli MAF, Jardim WF, Warner S, Alphey L, Beech C (2015) Assessment of the impact of potential tetracycline exposure on the phenotype of Aedes aegyptiOX513A: implications for field use. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 9(8): e0003999. OPEN ACCESS: http://www.plosntds.org/article/fetchObject.action?uri=info:doi/10.1371/journal.pntd.0003999&representation=PDF

Harvey-Samuel T, Morrison NI, Walker AS, Marubbi T, Yao J, Collins HL, Gorman K, Davies TGE, Alphey N, Warner S, Shelton AM, Alphey L (2015) Pest control and resistance management through releases of insects carrying a male-selecting transgene. BMC Biology 13: 49. OPEN ACCESS: http://www.biomedcentral.com/content/pdf/s12915-015-0161-1.pdf

Patil PB, Niranjan Reddy BP, Gorman K, Seshu Reddy KV, Barwale SR, Zehr US, Nimmo D, Naish N, Alphey A (2015) Mating competitiveness and life-table comparisons between transgenic and Indian wild-type Aedes aegypti L. Pest Manag Sci.Jul;71(7):957-65. doi: 10.1002/ps.3873 OPEN ACCESS: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25078081

Gorman K, Young J, Pineda L, Márquez R, Sosa N, Bernal D, Torres R, Soto Y, Lacroix R, Naish N, Kaiser P, Tepedino K, Philips G, Kosmann C, Cáceres L (2016) Short-term suppression of Aedes aegyptiusing genetic control does not facilitate Aedes albopictus. Pest Management Science 72(3):618-28. doi: 10.1002/ps.4151. OPEN ACCESS: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ps.4151/epdf

Mansor, SM Ummul HA, Lacroix R, Chandru A, Thayan R, Vasan SS, Devi SS, Lee HL, Murad S, Sit NW,Alphey L, Nazni WA (2016) Similar vertical transmission of dengue and chikungunya viruses in a transgenic and a non-transformed Aedes aegypti(L.) laboratory strain. Tropical Biomedicine 33(1): 120-134. OPEN ACCESS: http://www.msptm.org/files/Vol33-No01/120-134-Nazni-WA.pdf

Gregory M, Alphey L, Morrison NI, Shimeld SM (2016) Insect transformation with piggyBac: getting the number of injections just right. Insect Mol Biol, 25: 259–271. PAYWALL:http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/imb.12220/abstract;jsessionid=3694FE870B60851D03E74F8EF7D18E79.f04t01

Turner G (2016) Self-limiting genetics in insect pest management – Regulatory imbalance in risk characterisation. GMOs in Integrated Plant Production, IOBC-WPRS BulletinVol. 114, pp. 83-90. PAYWALL:https://www.iobc-wprs.org/members/shop_en.cfm?mod_Shop_detail_produkte=160

Turner J, Krishna R, Van ‘t Hof AE, Sutton ER, Matzen K, Darby AC (2017) The sequence of a male-specific genome region containing the sex determination switch in Aedes aegypti. Pre-print: bioRxiv 122804. OPEN ACCESS: https://doi.org/10.1101/122804

Marubbi T, Cassidy C, Miller E, Koukidou M, Martin-Rendon E, Warner S, Loni A, Beech C (2017) Exposure to genetically engineered olive fly (Bactrocera oleae) has no negative impact on three non-target organisms. Scientific Reports 7, 11478. OPEN ACCESS: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-017-11908-4?WT.feed_name=subjects_genetic-engineering

Zhou L, Alphey N, Walker AS, Travers LM, Hasan F, Morrison NI, Bonsall MB, Raymond B (2017) Combining the high-dose/refuge strategy and self-limiting transgenic insects in resistance management—a test in experimental mesocosms. Evol Appl. 00:1–12. OPEN ACCESS: https://doi.org/10.1111/eva.12573


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